Fiber optics or optical fiber cables are the medium and technology which are associated with the transmission of information as light along a glass or plastic strand or fiber. The glass fiber core and cladding have a different refractive index which bends the incoming light to a certain level. Moreover, the light signals don’t travel with the speed of light and the speed is lessened by 30%. Sometimes repeaters are required by the fiber optics communication when the distance is long and the interval is large.
There are basically two types of optical fiber cables-
• Single mode optical fiber-It is used when the distance between the source and the receiver is very large. The bandwidth is considerably very higher than the multimode fibers.
• Multimode optical fiber- It is used when the distance between the source and the receiver is very small. LED light is used for the transmission of the light in the multimode fiber.
Advantages of fiber optics-
• One of the major benefits of the fiber optics is that it is one of the fastest media of choice for telecommunication. In fact, there is a multitude of benefits of using fiber optics over the traditional mode of transmission.
• Fiber optics is much more secure than the traditional mediums. The electromagnetic interference makes the coaxial cables to leak information. The optical cables make it difficult to remotely detect the signal being transmitted within the cable and hence are much secure.
• There is much less loss of data in the optical fibers. This is because of the design of the optical fibers which includes the principle of total internal reflection.
• The optical fiber cables have a larger bandwidth and hence they can carry more information. Also, they are much lighter in weight and have a smaller diameter.
• The long-distance transmission is much easier with fiber optics than the copper wires.
Applications of Fiber optics-
• Communication- Fiber optics is resistant to electronic noise and hence these cables are used effectively in the communication sector. The use of light also makes the sound much clear in the voice communication. These cables are also used for transmitting and receiving purposes.
• Military- Fiber optics is much sensitive to electronic interference and hence fiber optics is suitable for military applications and communications. Since military field has shown much interest in the field of this technology hence the fibers are being developed which are much stronger and reliable.
• Medical- Fiber optic is also used as light guides, lasers and imaging tools for surgeries. It is also used in an endoscope which is a diagnostic instrument which enables users to see through small holes in the body.
• Mechanical or Industrial field- The fiber optics are used in the jet interiors and things which cannot be seen under the normal conditions. These are also used in inspecting mechanical wields in pipes and engines, space, and rockets.
• Networking- It is also used in connecting servers in a variety of network settings. This is used to increase the speed and efficiency of data transmission.
There are a plenty of advantages and applications of fiber optics that cannot be ignored.